Celebrating the Seasons
Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:55

Pagan Yuletide Greenery

greeneryby Selena Fox

Kinds

  • from Evergreen "Yule" Trees - Pines, Fir, Spruce, others
  • from other Trees - Holly, Oak, Birch, Silver Fir, Yew, Juniper, Cedar, Fruit trees, others
  • from Herbs - Mistletoe, Ivy, Bayberry, Bay, Rosemary, Sage, others
  • from other Plants - Poinsettia, others

Forms

  • living
  • cut & kept fresh
  • cut & dried
  • representational

History

  • Used for Winter Solstice time celebrations since antiquity -- Roman, Teutonic, English, Egyptian, others
  • Use continued as part of Christmas traditions, but banned some eras & places due to their Pagan associations
  • Part of spiritual & secular December holiday celebrations in contemporary America & elsewhere

Sacred Uses:

  • Wreath - symbolizing the wheel of the year; placed on doorways, walls, altars, other places
    Rituals of selection, creation, placement, removal, burning at Imbolc, Summer Solstice, or other times
  • Yule Tree - symbolizing eternal life force & World Tree; decorated with lights, sun symbols, other symbols
    Rituals of growing, selection, honoring tree spirit, placement, decoration, removal, offering or burning
  • Sprigs, Boughs, & Garlands - symbolizing the continuity of life; used to adorn homes, altars, other places
    Rituals of cutting, arranging, removal, burning or mulching
  • Mistletoe Amulet - symbolizing peace, friendship, affection; hung above door ways to protect home
    Rituals of harvest, placement, home blessing, kissing under it for peace making, fun, good luck
  • Mistletoe is often an ingredient in multi-herbal kissing ball used in similar ways
  • Yule Log Adornment - with Holly to symbolize old year passing & with other greens for continuity of life
    Rituals of selection & placement on the Log, burning with the Log to welcome new solar year, good luck
  • Greenery Circle Making - symbolizing the Circle of Life & Yule season; outline ritual circle with greens
    Rituals of harvest, placement, later removal & use in sacred fires
  • Evergreen Sprig Wand - symbolizing the Yuletide season, renewal, well-being
    Rituals of harvest, uses for circle casting, purification, healing, energy directing, home blessing
  • Sacred Fires - dried greenery symbolizing the season & specified intention such as release or attraction
    Rituals of fire starting, fire feeding, magic making
  • Crowns - of Holly leaves symbolizing Holly King, Holly Boy, & Goddess; of Oak Leaves for the Oak King, of Ivy for Goddess, God, Ivy Girl; of a mixture of greens symbolizing Yuletide
    Rituals of creating, crowning, invoking, offering, aspecting, thanksgiving, celebration
  • Gifts - of living plants, herb teas, greens scented candles, motifs decorating cards, foods, music, art
    Rituals of creating, selection, gifting, thanksgiving, friendship renewal & love
  • Greenery Meditation - using actual or visualized greenery symbolizing renewal of the Yuletide season
    Rituals of healing, guidance, seasonal celebration

 

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:54

Yule Songs

yule04

Merry Solstice [traditional English, adapted]
We wish you a Merry Solstice, We wish you a Merry Solstice,
We wish you a Merry Solstice, and a Happy New Year!
Good tidings we bring to you and your kin,
We wish you a Merry Solstice, and a Happy New Year!

Deck the Halls [traditional Welsh Yuletide carol]
Deck the halls with boughs of holly, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.
'Tis the season to be jolly, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.
Don we now our gay apparel, Fa-la-la, Fa-la-la, Fa-la-la.
Troll the ancient Yuletide carol, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.

See the blazing Yule before us, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.
Strike the harp and join the chorus, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.
Follow me in merry measure, Fa-la-la, Fa-la-la, Fa-la-la.
While I tell of Yuletide treasure, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.

Fast away the old year passes, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.
Hail the new, ye lads and lasses, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.
Sing we joyous all together, Fa-la-la, Fa-la-la, Fa-la-la.
Heedless of the wind and weather, Fa-la-la-la-la, Fa-la-la-la.

 

Lore and Rituals by Selena Fox

summer-solstice-plaqueSummer Solstice, sometimes known as Midsummer, Litha, or St. John's Day, occurs in the middle of June. It is a celebration of the longest day of the year and the beginning of Summer. It has been a grand tribal gathering time since ancient times. This is a sacred time for honoring Mother Earth and the Sacred Sun. Colors are Yellow, Green, and Blue. It is a festival of community sharing and planetary service.

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:54

Spring Rituals

Spring-Eggs-Sabbat-Plate-AltarWorkshop by Selena Fox

Signs of Spring - take a Nature walk with your attention focused on changes in the land, climate, creatures, plants. Reflect on yourself renewing as other parts of Nature your encounter are doing this.

Spring Cleaning - in & around home. Sweeping, scrubbing, smudging, burning, re-organizing, more.

Airing out the Home - opening windows and letting new air flow through and circulate.

Spring Home Blessings - consecrate with Earth, Air, Fire, Water, Spirit; bless threshold.

Home Altar Renewal - take off all objects, clean altar and area around it, assess what to keep & what to change, re-set, add Spring decorations.

Spring Decorations - place Spring symbols such as wreath and/or budding branches on or near front door, place symbolic and/or actual flowers, other symbols around home.

Egg Traditions - coloring, exchanges, hunts, games, decorations, foods, divinations

New Growth Choices Egg Rolling Divination - decorate a hardboiled egg with symbols of possible actions to bring about new growth; with intention, roll the egg to discover which to work with first.

Spring Tonic - infuse herbs in hot water to create a tea, drink it with intention of rejuvenation; use newly sprouted greens when available.

New Garb - purchase and/or create something new to wear - clothing, hat, shoes, necklace, or other item; wearing it as symbolic of new life spring forth.

Seeds Blessings - selecting seeds to be planted, blessing seeds, starting seeds.

Garden Blessings - clearing away debris, burying egg or other charm for abundance, envisioning abundant growth of plants in the garden.

Spring Meditations - working with one or more Spring images: Ostara, Green Gods/Goddesses, Flora, Maia, Demeter & Kore, Dionysus, Jack-in-Green, Balance of Day & Night, Flowers, Eggs, Baskets, Maypole, Greening/budding branches, Butterflies, Sunshine, others.

Festival Rites - Spring Equinox, Earth Day, Beltane; bonfires, greeting dawn, dance, processions, song.

 

Spring Chants by Selena Fox

Welcome Spring Chant

We Honor the Fertile Earth. We Honor the Warming Breezes.

We Honor the Waxing Light. We Honor the Nurturing Rains.

Welcome Spring, New Life to Bring, to Land, to Us, to All.

Welcome Spring, Rebirth we Sing, Within and 'Round Us All.

 

New Life Chant

New Life Spring Forth, New Life Spring Forth, New Life Spring Forth, Rise in Me!

 

Earth & Sky Chant

Mother Earth Renew Us, Father Sky Refresh Us!

 

Spring Equinox Chant

Time of Equal Nights & Equal Days.

Time to Welcome Spring in Sacred Ways.

 

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:53

Spring Equinox

Ostara-Sabbat-Plate-EggsLore and Rituals by Selena Fox

Spring Equinox, also known as Ostara, occurs in the middle of March. It marks the beginning of Spring and the time when days and nights are of equal length. The Goddess manifests as Ostara or Eostre with her basket of eggs. She is accompanied by the Hare or Rabbit, a manifestation of the God. Green has been sacred to this Sabbat since ancient times, because it represents the greening of the land with vegetation. This is a festival of new growth.

by Selena Fox

yule02Focus of Celebration:consider first your purpose(s) for the celebration, such as:

  • Strengthen family bonding with each other
  • Expand upon existing patterns of family celebrations
  • Attune family to Nature's cycles
  • Attune family to its membership in the community of all life on planet Earth
  • Connect with ancestors
  • Celebrate ethnic/cultural heritage(s)
  • Educate about ancient and contemporary folkways
  • Extend the celebration of Christmas, be an alternative, or expand upon it
  • Deepen understanding about spiritual renewal and love
  • Have fun

Timing of Celebration: pick a time that fits form of celebration and family patterns, such as:

On Solstice:

  • at moment of Solstice (check astrological/astronomical calendar)
  • at twilight
  • in evening before going to sleep
  • at sunrise
  • at noon or midday

Near Solstice:

  • night before Solstice
  • weekend before Solstice

Length of Celebration:structure with age and attention range of family members in mind

  • Very Short: under five minutes
  • Short: five to twenty minutes
  • Medium: twenty minutes to ninety minutes
  • Long: ninety minutes to three hours
  • Very Long: more than three hours, such as a twenty-four hour period

Settings of Celebration: pick a suitable location; some options include:

Indoors in Family Home:

  • at kitchen or dining table
  • by fireplace
  • by holiday tree
  • in living room or family room

Outdoors:

  • back or front yard of family home
  • deck
  • nearby park
  • Nature preserve/wilderness area

Components of Celebration: select one or more that fits focus, timing, length, and setting

Yule Wreath

  • purchase a wreath or make a wreath from evergreens collected by family members.
  • have family members gather around the wreath and consider it as a symbol of cycles of Nature; mention Yule and Jul, names for Winter Solstice time (and Christmas) mean wheel.
  • have family members each share something they appreciate about Winter
  • put the wreath in a visible location, such as on the front door, on an inside wall, or in the center of the dining table.
  • On or after New Year's Day, wreath can be returned to Nature, or kept until Summer Solstice and then burned in a bonfire.

Solstice Feast

  • Prepare favorite family foods and beverages.
  • Before beginning the dining experience, do a family prayer of thanksgiving.
  • End the feast with a cake or pie with a sun image on it.
  • Birthday candles can be put on this solar dessert. Each family member can light a candle and make a wish for the holiday season or the upcoming calendar year. Once all candles are lit, the family as a whole can blow them out to send wishes on their way. Then call out "Happy Solstice" or "Good Yule" in unison.

Candlelight Circle

  • Can be done as part of a feast or separately.
  • Family gathers in a circle around a card table or dining table. There is an unlit new red taper candle in a candleholder for each family member, plus a larger new red taper or pillar candle in a candleholder to represent the family as a whole and the Solstice Sun. Candles are arranged evenly around the central larger candle.
  • Parent(s) begin the circle by sharing some background about Winter Solstice, such as how it has been celebrated across time and cultures, and how its celebration is reflected in contemporary secular and religious Christmas customs. Then parent(s) describe the focus for this candlelight circle, such as to attune the family members to each other, to the ways of ancestors, and/or to Nature.
  • Lights are extinguished. Family stands or sits in darkness for a few moments and contemplates the reduction of daylight at this time of year, the importance of the Sun to life on the planet, and the symbology of light as indicators of renewal.
  • Then, parent(s) light the central candle with a blessing of renewal for the family and the planet and guide a short meditation on light and renewal.
  • Next, parent(s) invite each member to light her/his personal candle and give a thanksgiving for something in past or present or a blessing for the year to come.
  • When all the candles are lit, the family joins hands and chants or sings. The song, "We wish you a Merry Christmas" can be adapted to "We wish you a Merry Solstice" and sung to end the circle.
  • Candles can be left burning if in a safe, attended location, throughout the rest of the Solstice celebration, if there are other component parts.
  • Candles can be extinguished by everyone doing it simultaneously after one of the family members states that the light of renewal remains in our hearts.

Yule Log

  • An oak log, plus a fireplace or bonfire area is needed for this form of celebration. The oak log should be very dry so that it will blaze well. It can be decorated with burnable red ribbons of natural fiber and dried holly leaves. In the fireplace or bonfire area, dried kindling should be set to facilitate the burning of the log.
  • Begin by having parent(s) or some other family member describe the tradition of the Yule log. The tale of the Oak King and Holly King from Celtic mythology can be shared as a story, or can be summarized with a statement that the Oak represents the waxing solar year, Winter Solstice to Summer Solstice, and the Holly represents the waning solar year, Summer Solstice to Winter Solstice.
  • Lights are extinguished as much as possible. The family is quiet together in the darkness. Family members quietly contemplate the change in the solar year. Each in her/his own way contemplates the past calendar year, the challenges as well as the good times.
  • Then the Yule Log fire is lit. As it begins to burn, each family member throws in one or more dried holly sprigs and says farewell to the old calendar year. Farewells can take the form of thanksgiving and appreciation and/or a banishment of old habits or personal pains.
  • Once the Yule Log itself starts blazing, then the facilitator invites family members to contemplate the year ahead and the power of possibilities. Each member then throws in an oak twig or acorn into the fire to represent the year ahead, and calls out a resolution and/or a hope.
  • When this process is done, the family sings a song together. The traditional carol, "Deck the Halls," is good because it mentions the Solstice, the change in the solar year, and the Yule log.
  • Let the Yule Log burn down to a few chunks of charred wood and ashes. Following an ancient tradition, save remnants of the fire and use them to start the Yule Log fire the following year.

Bell Ringing

  • This can take a simple form of the family ringing bells together at the moment of Solstice, or it can be a circle ceremony in and of itself. It also can be incorporated into other components of the celebration such as the Candlelight Circle or Yule Log Ceremony -- in these cases, bells can be rung after each blessing/sharing is stated.
  • Each family member chooses a bell to ring. Bells can be of varying sizes and types, but should blend well with each other when rung together. Brass bells and/or jingle bells are commonly available and have long time associations with the season.
  • For a bell ringing Solstice Circle, the family gathers together in a circle. Each has a bell in hand to ring. Parent(s) or some other family member serves as facilitator(s). She/he begins by saying a few words about the Solstice being the start of the new solar year and how the calendar year used today in many places around the world was structured on the solar year. The facilitator then describes how bells have been rung in connection with many types of celebrations. Bells have been rung at this time of year to ring out the old year and to ring in the new year. Then the facilitator invites the family to celebrate the Solstice with bells.
  • If the family is used to honoring the directions as part of spiritual practice (Wiccan, Native American, Buddhist, Hermetic, etc.), the family begins by facing each of the compass points (North, East, South, West) and ringing the bells in unison, honoring connections with each sacred direction. Then the family rings bells in the three directions connected with the center: upward, the place of the cosmos; downward, the place of the planet; and center; Divine unity.
  • In place of or in addition to individual direction honoring, the family rings all their bells together to celebrate their connection with each other as a family; then they ring them in unison again to celebrate their connection with the cycles of Nature; and then they ring them a third time in unison to celebrate their connection with life on planet Earth and all of Nature.
  • Then from the oldest to the youngest, each family member speaks a vision or wish for the planet for the coming year. After each one speaks, all ring bells together to affirm that vision/wish. After all have shared, the ceremony ends as the family calls out "Happy Solstice" or "Good Yule" three times and rings bells.

Yule Tree

  • Decorate an evergreen tree as a Yule tree. The tree can be a living tree growing in the yard of the home or in a container indoors to be planted outside in Spring. Or, the tree can be a harvested one purchased or cut yourself from a tree farm.
  • The Yule Tree can be decorated prior to or on Solstice for the entire holiday season. If decorated prior to Solstice, on Solstice day, family members can each add an ornament. Members may want to speak a blessing on the Solstice celebration as they add their ornaments. Ornaments can be of any type, but those that represent the Sun, such as sun figures or shinny red or golden balls, are very appropriate because of their symbolism. A star, sunburst, or light at the top of the tree is another traditional Solstice symbol.
  • Electric lights on the tree can also play into the Solstice celebration. They can be first turned on during the Solstice celebration. Or, if the family custom is to have a lit holiday tree for much of December, the lights can be turned off during a celebration as the family focuses on the year passing and the longest nights of the year and then turned on to represent renewal and the new Solar year.
  • After the holiday season is over, the Yule tree can be burned in a bonfire, chopped up and used as mulch, or placed in the wilds as additional habitat for wild creatures. A branch can be saved and stored away until next year and then burned with the Yule Log to represent the continuity of Nature's cycles.

Winter Nature Communion

  • Grains and seeds, and the feeding of creatures have been associated with Yuletide holidays for hundred of years in Europe. To continue this tradition, gather some sunflower seeds in a large basket or bowl. Go outside next to the home or to a place frequented by wild birds and other wild creatures.
  • The family gathers around a bird feeder, a tree stump, a rock ledge, or other spot where the seeds are to be placed. Someone in the family serves as facilitator and guides the family in a Nature attunement meditation. First, the family silently focuses on the experience of being outdoors in the Winter at this Solstice time. Next, the family silently focuses on being part of the fabric of life of Nature. Then the family silently focuses on expressing appreciation for the beauty of Nature and the relationships with other lifeforms. Each family member then takes a handful of seeds and focuses on the seeds as symbols of life and as messengers of goodwill toward other parts of Nature.
  • Now, each family member in turn places the seeds in the feeder or on the stump, ledge, or other spot, and speaks an appreciation of Nature. After all the offerings have been made, the family joins hands and says together several times, "We are part of the Family of Nature!" The ceremony ends as the family in unison calls out "Happy Solstice!" or "Good Yule!"

Solstice Stories

  • The family can share Solstice related stories with each other. Parents, grandparents, and/or other older relatives can share how they celebrated Yuletide (Solstice, Christmas, New Year's) when they were young. Parents and other relatives also can speak about their ethnic roots and share whatever they know of Yuletide folk customs of their ancestors.
  • If little or nothing is known within the living extended family itself about ancestral folk ways, prior to Solstice, one or more family members can do some research into customs connected with ancestral nationalities, ethnicities, spiritualities, and other cultural forms. Some places to check for information include bookstores and libraries, gifts shops with ethnic themes, cultural societies, folklore centers, museums, and multicultural centers at universities.
  • In addition to stories about folk customs connected with Yuletide, myths and legends connected with Winter, the Sun, and/or Renewal can be told.
  • To facilitate passing this family heritage on to future generations, the family may wish to tape record or videotape the story sharing.

Gift Giving

  • Across many cultures for at least several thousand years, gifts have been exchanged among family and friends at Solstice time. Even if the family already has a tradition of exchanging gifts at Christmas or Epiphany, some gifts can be exchanged on Solstice as well. Having gift giving occur over a period of time extends the holiday celebration and is a time honored tradition, as commemorated in the song "Twelve Days of Christmas."
  • The Solstice gift exchange can take a variety of forms. When all family holiday gifts are displayed under the Yule tree for several days, each family member can select one gift with their own name on it to open on Solstice night or morning. In cases in which family members give each other multiple gifts, each member can select a gift to give each other member. Another method of gift distribution is to have family members place their names in a hat or basket, and when this is done, to each draw a name, which indicates the person to whom they will give a Solstice gift.
  • Still another alternative is to have a gifting experience unique to Solstice. A group of similar, yet distinctive small gifts, individually wrapped can be placed in a large basket or cauldron. There should be one for each family member. At least one extra gift could be included and this could be kept for the family as a whole or later given to a family friend. Some examples of gift groups include an assortment of pieces of tumbled agate or quartz crystals, a collection of animal figurines or exotic sea shells, an array of candles or bells, or a variety of pieces of candy or other food treats. Gift picking can be according to age: oldest to youngest, youngest to oldest; according to birth date in the year; by first name in alphabetical order; by lot; or by some other method. The gift exchange, when involving Nature gifts, can have an educational component. For example, if bird images are the gift form, the family can talk about each type of bird after each figure is unwrapped.
  • A good way to bring closure to the gift exchange on Solstice night is for the family to join hands together in a circle and spend a few moments focusing together on the sharing of love, a on-going gift that transcends time and physical presents.
  • Focus on appreciating each other strengthens the family as well as imbues the gift giving and other Solstice celebration experiences with a spiritual context.

 

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:51

Saturnalia Poem

by Selena Fox

DSCF4713Selena first publicly shared this poem on Solstice night 1994 during Circle's public Winter Solstice Celebration in Madison, Wisconsin.

It is the middle of December.
The nights are longer, the weather is colder, winter comes.

Celebration is at hand.
Renewing bonds of friendship.
Visiting with family and friends.
Exchanging gifts with loved ones.
Candles, Dolls, Cookies, Sweets, Holly, Wreaths of Green.
Surprises.

Courts close. Battles stop.
Time off from school and work.
Holiday Break.

Singing, Dancing, Games, Merry-Making.
Food ... Lots of Food and Drink.
Great Feasts and Parties.

To celebrate the Sun, the Land, the Ancient Ones, the great Circle of Nature.
To welcome in the Winter and the New Year.
To bring forth renewal, peace, and joy.

Solstice Present .... Solstice Past.
This is the legacy of Saturnalia,
weeklong Pagan Winter Solstice Festival of Ancient Rome.

Saturnalia, your spirit and these traditions live on
in the world today
in Christmas feasts and New Year's parties,
in our Winter Solstice celebration tonight.

Bless our connection with the ancients.
Bless our connection with each other.
Bless our connection with future generations.

We rejoice.
Io, Saturnalia!
Io, Saturnalia!
Io, Saturnalia!

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:51

Saturnalia

DSCF9910by Selena Fox

Timing of Saturnalia

  • varied during the course of Roman history.
  • began as feast days for Saturn (December 17) and Ops (December 19).
  • with Julian calendar, Saturnalia on December 17 & 18; Opalia on December 19 & 20.
  • during the empire, extended to a week (December 17-23); longer with other holidays.

Associated holiday festivals

  • Consualia, end of sowing season festival (December 15).
  • Dies Juvenalis, Coming of Age for Young Men (mid-December).
  • Feast of Sol Invicta, the Unconquered Sun, set in 274 A. D. (December 25).
  • Brumalia, Winter Solstice on pre-Julian calendar (December 25).
  • Christmas (December 25), Christians move Christ's birthday to this date in 336 A.D.
  • Janus Day and Beginning of Calendar Year (January 1), set in 153 B.C.; again in 45 B.C.
  • Compitalia, blessing of the fields rural festival (January 3-5).

Deities honored around Winter Solsticetime

  • Saturn - God of Agriculture; merged with the Greek Cronos.
  • Ops - Goddes of Plenty; Mother Earth; partner to Saturn and Consus.
  • Sol Invicta - Sun God; connected with the Persian Mithra, honored by Roman soldiers.
  • Consus - God of Storebin of Harvested Grain.
  • Juventas - Goddess of Young Manhood; related to Greek Hebe of Youthful Beauty.
  • Janus - God of Beginnings and Gates; Solar God of Daybreak; Creator God.

Celebrations included

  • merry-making
  • rest and relaxation
  • connections with family and friends
  • celebrating beginning of Solar year
  • prayers for protection of Winter crops
  • honoring Deities

Legacies of Saturnalia in contemporary holiday celebrations

  • Religious Rituals -- joining in spiritual community to honor the Divine.
  • Honored Figures -- Santa and Father Time -- Saturn; Holy Mother -- Ops.
  • Sacred Flames -- candles lit and new fires kindled to represent new Solar year.
  • Greens -- Holly given with gifts, homes decorated with wreaths and garlands.
  • Time Off from Work -- government, schools, businesses closed; multiple days off.
  • Peace -- dispensing of punishments suspended and courts closed; wars ceased.
  • Relaxing with Family and Friends -- renewing bonds, sharing celebration.
  • Gift Giving -- dolls to children, candles to friends; fruit symbols representing increase.
  • Feasting -- sharing food with family and friends; on-going eating and drinking.
  • Helping Less Fortunate -- class distinctions suspended; food for all; masters waiting on servants.
  • Exhuberant Play -- masquerades, gaming, gambling, mock king, jokes, partying, letting loose.
  • Paper Hats -- soft hats (pilei) worn at Saturnalia banquets to signify informality.
  • Dancing in the New Solar Year -- music and dancing.

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:51

Samhain Lore and Rituals

Samhain-Spirit-Altar-best

Article by Selena Fox

Samhain, popularly known as Halloween, occurs in late October and early November. For most Wiccan practitioners, this is the New Year, and a time for letting go of the old and looking ahead to the new. It marks the end of the harvest season. Since ancient times, Pagans have paid their respects to departed loved ones, ancestors, and guides in the Spirit World at Samhain. The Goddess manifests as the Crone and the God as the Horned Hunter and Lord of Death. Sacred colors are Black and Orange. It is the festival of endings and transformation.

Sunday, 22 July 2012 07:50

Lammas

Lore and Rituals by Selena Fox

IMG 7943Lammas, or Lughnassad, occurs in late July and early August. It is marks the middle of Summer and the beginning of the harvest. It is the first of three harvest festivals and is usually associated with ripening grain. It heralds the coming of Autumn. The Goddess manifests as Demeter, Ceres, Corn Mother, and other agricultural Goddesses. The God manifests as Lugh, John Barleycorn, and vegetation Gods. Colors are Golden Yellow, Orange, Green, and Light Brown. It is a festival of plenty and prosperity.